By Peter W. Milonni
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Additional resources for The quantum vacuum: introduction to QED
Input-based payment methods with payments both set and made prospectively, such as a line-item budget (figure 1 above), usually stimulate providers to behave differently than if the payment method is output-based with payments set prospectively and made retrospectively, such as case-based payment. In payment methods in which the payment rate is set retrospectively, such as fee-for-service, it is implied that the provider’s recurrent costs will be covered, and therefore the provider has little incentive to decrease costs or improve productivity.
Samyshkin, E. 1999. , Almaty, Kazakhstan. Schneider, P. 2007. ” Paper presented at GTZ/ILO/WHO Conference, October 31, Kigali, Rwanda. -M. 1992. ” Social Science and Medicine 39 (10): 1473–81. Srithamrongsawat, S. 2007. ” Presentation, WHO Health Financing Consultation for Senior Policy Makers, Cairo, Egypt, November 13–15. Wagstaff, Adam. 2007. ” Health Economics 16: 441–456. Wiley, M. 1995. ” Journal of Irish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons 24 (4): 283–290. W. Moran. 1993. ” Health Care Financing Review 14 (3): 55–76.
Using these models from the perspective of the tensions outlined above, evidence suggests that the retrospective elements of payment systems do better on addressing issues of access, acceptable levels of provider risk, adequate revenues, patient selection, and quality enhancement, while the prospective elements do better on optimal levels of services, efficiency, and cost containment (see, for example, Dranove and Satterthwaite 2000). Input-based payment methods with payments both set and made prospectively, such as a line-item budget (figure 1 above), usually stimulate providers to behave differently than if the payment method is output-based with payments set prospectively and made retrospectively, such as case-based payment.
The quantum vacuum: introduction to QED by Peter W. Milonni