By National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (Editors)
This document addresses the dimension of radioactivity and offers with the substantial variety of diversified radioactive fabrics that experience develop into to be had within the final 3 a long time, from nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, for functions in medication, clinical study, and undefined. It additionally addresses low-level radioactivity measurements for the tracking of radioactivity in environmental media, corresponding to air and water, in reference to the keep an eye on of radioactive effluents linked to the construction of nuclear strength or using radionuclides.
Preface to the 1st variation
Preface to the second one variation
desk of Contents
2. Physics of a few Radiation Detectors
three. basic or Direct Measurements of job in Radioactive Decay
four. oblique or Comparative Measurements of task in Radioactive Decay
five. recommendations for the instruction of normal resources for Radioactivity Measurements
6. The Assay of Radioactivity and the identity of Radionuclides in Environmental, scientific, and commercial Laboratories
eight. Measurements coverage, criteria, Traceability and the assertion of Uncertainty
Appendix A: Nuclear-Decay information for chosen Radionuclides
Appendix B: The records of Radioactive Decay
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Additional resources for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures, 2nd edition
6). 1 Introduction It has long been known that many substances emit visible light when exposed to nuclear radiation, and this was the basis of Sir William Crookes' spinthariscope which utilized a ZnS screen to permit the observation of single alpha particles emitted in the decay of natural radioactivity. In 1944, Curran and Baker first substituted an electronmultiplier phototube for the human eye, creating the first scintillation detector as we know it today. Kallmann (1947) used naphthalene, an organic crystal, as a scintillation medium that is transparent to the fluorescent radiation emitted by the interaction of the charged particles within the scintillator.
One of the oldest methods of direct standardization of activity is that of defined-solid-angle counting where the defined solid angle is 17r steradians or less. It has been used for measuring alpha-particle, beta-particle, and photon activities, but is now considered unsuitable 18 / INTRODUCTION for direct beta-particle standardization, because of the large errors introduced by scattering. Bambynek (1967) states, however, that for alpha particles with energies of several MeV, and for photons in the range of energy of 1 to 80 keV, accuracies of within f O .
Thus, an "avalanchen is developed. However, photons are also formed during the production of the secondary electrons. These photons may release photoelectrons anywhere in the counter volume or walls, depending on the nature of the filling gas. 2 PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS / 25 ation of the proportional counter. Consider such a counter containing a pure gas filling of, say, argon. Suppose that ii is the average electron multiplication in the avalanche so that each of n electrons produced in the primary ionizing event gives rise, in its acceleration toward the anode wire, to an average total of 6 electrons in the avalanche.
A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures, 2nd edition by National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (Editors)