By D. Robertson
This booklet bargains a entire advisor to records and corporations that are fascinated with the problems of human rights. It contains up to date definitions and brief essays approximately all the three hundred entries. The entries are prepared alphabetically, cross-referenced, and divided into local and nationwide adjustments. motives of the criminal components and implications also are integrated. The publication lists companies that are concerned about human rights, together with Amnesty foreign, ecu fee on Human Rights and Conseil d'Etat. It additionally lists numerous extracts from files written approximately human rights, together with the "Bill of Rights 1688", the "European Social constitution" and the "Convention opposed to Torture". The ebook discusses the elemental principles of rights and liberties, and the position of conventions, declarations, courts, tribunals and criminal platforms upholding them. It offers concise outlines of the overall positons on human rights for all best constructed international locations. it may be important to public and educational libraries, scholars, academics, newshounds and any association or person with an curiosity in human rights matters.
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Additional resources for A Dictionary of Human Rights
Civil Rights Acts (USA) Since the late 1950s there has been, in the USA, a series of important federal legislative assaults on discrimination, particularly racial discrimination . The most important have been: the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960, 1964 and 1968; the 1965 Voting Rights Act; and the 1968 Fair Housing Act (see voting rights and housing rights ). The 1957 Act was passed by only one vote in Congress, prompted largely by the courts’ attack on educational discrimination in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.
On the question of the amount of proof there are two basic standards. In criminal law, at least in the common law world, it is usually held that the prosecution must prove its case ‘beyond reasonable doubt’. Thus the fact that all the evidence seems to point towards guilt will not suffice for a conviction if there is any doubt, beyond the merely fanciful, that there is an innocent explanation. Civil law cases instead depend on the ‘balance of probabilities’ test, whereby it is suggested that given all the evidence the defendant should be held liable.
Perhaps ironically, the issue on which Charter 77 was founded was outrage at the harsh sentences passed on a Czech rock band, ‘The Plastic People of the Universe’, rather than more classic entrenched repression of political activists. Chilling effects The idea of a law or practice having a ‘chilling effect’, the fear that certain legal action in pursuit of rights may place curbs on the freedoms of others, has developed from a narrow and precise doctrine in US civil rights law to have a more general usage both inside and beyond the US legal system.
A Dictionary of Human Rights by D. Robertson